Ivan Otcheskiy, Tatiana Boikova, Artem Kovalev, Svetlana Ivanova, Andrey Lyubanenko, Olga Arkhipova


Behavioural uncertainty is an important factor in building contractual relations, which can lead to significant risks in the process of concluding and implementing a contract as the main tool for economic exchange. This article explores the most typical types of opportunistic contracts, based on the personal business experience of the authors and on the practice of interaction between business entities in today’s Russian economy. An opportunistic (mined) contract is a written procedure for the interaction of economic agents providing for some contract terms and conditions that can significantly change the economic effect of the contract execution with an unjustified benefit for one of the parties to the detriment of the other party to the contract, which is not obvious at first glance, but can happen in the process of the contract implementation (or under the impact of a certain combination of external factors). The authors give a definition of an opportunistic contract, define its characteristics and consider some practical examples of the contractual opportunism manifestation. They conclude that the fundamental precondition for the widespread institutional practice of opportunistic (mined) contracts is an insufficient effectiveness of the judicial system and the judicial and other mechanisms for protecting the violated rights of business entities. The main negative effect of opportunistic contracts on economic processes is a significant increase in transaction costs.


opportunistic (mined) contract; opportunistic behaviour; contractual opportunism; contractual behaviour; opportunistic pattern; informal arbitrators; fixers

Texto completo:



Antonenko, E.V. (2016). Opportunistic behavior costs as a component of industrial company transaction costs. Investment and innovation management journal, 4, 11–17. DOI: 10.14529/iimj160402.

Arbitration Court of the Northwestern Federal District. (2017). Resolution no. F07-6074/2017 of June 30, 2017, on case no. А26-8858/2016. Retrieved from https://base.garant.ru/41245704/

Bag, S. (2018). Economic analysis of contract law: Incomplete contracts and asymmetric information. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

Benzl, D, Kozlova, E, & Silova, E. (2014) Opportunism and efficiency of contractual relations in Russian corporations. CBU International conference on innovation, technology transfer and education, February 3–5, 75–82.

Cimino, C.F. (2015). The relational economics of commercial contract. Texas A&M Law Review, 3, 91. Retrieved from https://advance.lexis.com/api/document?collection=analytical-materials&id=urn:contentItem:5H4X-PRX0-00CV-F031-00000-00&context=1516831

Cordes, C., Richerson, P.J., McElreath, R., & Strimling, P. (2006). How does opportunistic behavior influence firm size? Papers on Economics and Evolution, No. 0618. Retrieved from Open Access Publication Server of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics.

de los Reyes Jr., G. & Martin, K. (2019). Not from guile but from entitlement: Lawful opportunism capitalizes on the cracks in contracts. Buffalo Law Review, 67(1). Retrieved from https://advance.lexis.com/api/document?collection=analytical-materials&id=urn:contentItem:5W3V-DMY0-00CV-Y0M1-00000-00&context=1516831

Friedman, D.D. (2000). Law’s order: What economics has to do with law and why it matters. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Gelderman, C.J., Semeijn, J., & Verhappen, M. (2020, March). Buyer opportunism in strategic supplier relationships: Triggers, manifestations and consequences. Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management. Retrieved from https://advance.lexis.com/api/document?collection=news&id=urn:contentItem:5YF9-R4R1-JBVK-H389-00000-00&context=1516831

Grazhdanskiy kodeks Rossiyskoy Federatsii. Chast' pervaya (Civil Code of the Russian Federation. Part One). (1994). Approved by of the State Duma on October 21, 1994. Retrieved May 07, 2020, from http://www.consultant.ru/cons/cgi/online.cgi?rnd=31BA183D89F397144C80B0DDE3BD959E&base=LAW&n=340325&dst=4294967295&cacheid=35143974863E68B0CF2F83ABE17FC387&mode=rubr&req=doc#75kkp48aafk

Huo B., Wang Z., & Tian, Y. (2016). The impact of justice on collaborative and opportunistic behaviors in supply chain relationships. International Journal of Production Economics, 177, 12–23. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925527316300317

Kelly, D.B. (2011, December). Strategic spillovers. Columbia Law Review, 111, 1641. Retrieved from https://advance.lexis.com/api/document?collection=analytical-materials&id=urn:contentItem:54HM-DN90-02BN-11J6-00000-00&context=1516831

Khantimirov, D., Karande, K., & Ford, J. (2020, January). Dissatisfaction after service failures as a realized transaction risk: Customer opportunism as a function of external and internal rewards. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. Retrieved from https://advance.lexis.com/api/document?collection=news&id=urn:contentItem:5XHR-0PY1-JBVK-H2JM-00000-00&context=1516831

Kundakchyan, R.M. & Grigoryeva, N.S. (2016). The influence of the opportunistic behavior on the contractual relationship. Journal of Economics and Economic Education Research, 17. Retrieved from https://dspace.kpfu.ru/xmlui/bitstream/handle/net/108588/jeeer_73_78.pdf?sequence=1

Lu, W. & Zhang, L., & Zhang, L. (2016). Effect of contract completeness on contractors’ opportunistic behavior and the moderating role of interdependence. J. Constr. Eng. Manage, 142(6). Retrieved from: https://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/%28ASCE%29CO.1943-7862.0001110

Lui, S.S., Wong, Y., & Liu, W. (2009). Asset specificity roles in interfirm cooperation: reducing opportunistic behavior or increasing cooperative behavior. J Bus Res, 62(11), 1214-1219.

Lumineau F. & Quelin B. (2012). An empirical investigation of interorganizational opportunism and contracting mechanisms. Strategic Organization, 10(1), 55–84. Retrieved from http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/38362/

Morita, H. & Servátka, M. (2014). Investment in outside options as opportunistic behavior: An experimental investigation. Retrieved from http://www.econ.canterbury.ac.nz/RePEc/cbt/econwp/1431.pdf

Plenum of Supreme Court of the Russian Federation. (2015). O primenenii sudami nekotorykh polozheniy razdela I chasti pervoy Grazhdanskogo kodeksa Rossiyskoy Federatsii (On application of some provisions of Section I of Part One of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation by courts). Resolution no. 25 of June 23, 2015. Retrieved from http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_181602/

Polkovnik Zakharchenko — ne milliarder, a khranitel’ (Colonel Zakharchenko — not a billionaire, but a keeper). (2018, April 24). PASMI.ru Retrieved from https://pasmi.ru/archive/209015/

Presidium of the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation. (2000). Obzor praktiki razresheniya sporov po dogovoru stroitel'nogo podryada (Review of judicial practice on disputes in construction contracts). Information Letter no. 51 of January 24, 2000. Bulletin of the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation, no. 3. Retrieved from Reference Legal System "Consultant Plus".

Presidium of the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation. (2009). Obzor praktiki primeneniya arbitrazhnymi sudami stat'i 10 Grazhdanskogo kodeksa Rossiyskoy Federatsii (Review of the practice of application of Article 10 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation by arbitration courts). Information Letter no. 127 of November 25, 2008. Bulletin of the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation, no. 2. Retrieved from Reference Legal System "Consultant Plus".

Presidium of the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation. (2014). Obzor sudebnoy praktiki po sporam, svyazannym s priznaniem dogovorov nezaklyuchennymi (Review of judicial practice on disputes involving the recognition of contracts as not concluded). Appendix to Information Letter no. 165 of February 25, 2014. Bulletin of the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation, no. 4. Retrieved from http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_160178/8396ddde159ff25098888e3ceaf8e95777bb618a/

Sun, L. & Rath, S. (2008). Fundamental determinants, opportunistic behavior and signaling mechanism: An integration of earnings management perspectives. International Review of Business Research Papers, 4(4), 406–420.

White, M.D. (Ed.). (2009). Theoretical foundations of law and economics. Cambridge, NY: Cambridge University Press.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26668/revistajur.2316-753X.v4i76.6536


  • Não há apontamentos.

Revista Jurídica e-ISSN: 2316-753X

Rua Chile, 1678, Rebouças, Curitiba/PR (Brasil). CEP 80.220-181

Licença Creative Commons

Este obra está licenciado com uma Licença Creative Commons Atribuição-NãoComercial 4.0 Internacional.