Henrique Tofoli Vieira MACHADO, Luis Gustavo Alves SILVA, Ronaldo Gonçalves da SILVA, Mateus de Lima RIBEIRO, Flavio Augusto NAOUM, Jusciele Brogin MORELI


Introduction: The prevalence of smoking and its health risks remain high. Considered a predictor for cardiovascular diseases, health interventions and policy changes regarding tobacco consumption are increasingly necessary to reduce morbidity and mortality in the population.

Aims: To identify the measures used to reduce smoking impact on mortality from cardiovascular diseases.

Materials and Methods: Systematic review study using PubMed, SciELO and VHL databases to search for studies published from 2017 to 2022. The search was conducted considering the terms cigarettes, “smoking'', “heart disease”, “mortality”, “rates” and “reduce”. The article's quality was assessed using the Study Quality Assessment Tool from the Department of Health and Human Services (NHLBI).

Results: A total of 29 studies were identified; 13 studies were eligible and included. The most prevalent ischemic and non-ischemic cardiovascular diseases associated with smoking were coronary heart disease, ischemic heart, stroke and heart attack. The increase in cigarette taxes and tobacco products, the use of pictorial warning labels on cigarette packaging, implementation of the Tobacco Control Law were the measures that demonstrated a significant reduction in mortality rates from cardiovascular diseases associated with smoking, followed by initiatives of public health and health education and prevention.

Conclusion: Economic measures,  especially those that attributed an increase in the price of cigarettes and tobacco-related products, educational and public health initiatives positively impacted the reduction of smoking, and minimization of morbidity, mortality of individuals from cardiovascular diseases and health expenses.

Keywords: tobacco; cardiovascular disease; morbidity; mortality; health impact assessment.  





tobacco; cardiovascular disease; morbidity; mortality; health impact assessment.

Texto completo:



Hall TS, Orn S, Zannad F, et al: The Association of Smoking with Hospitalization and Mortality Differs According to Sex in Patients with Heart Failure Following Myocardial Infarction. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 31:310-320, 2022

Arkhipova NS, Popova EK, Popov IO: Prevalence and Intensity of Smoking in Older Patients with Coronary Heart Disease Living in the Extreme North. Advances in Gerontology 9:346–351, 2019

World Health Organization (WHO): Global Report on Mortality Attributable to Tobacco, Geneva: World Health Organization, 2012. Available em:

Mujovic N, Marinkovic M, Mihajlovic M, et al: Risk factor modification for the primary and secondary prevention of atrial fibrillation. Part 1. Kardiol Pol 78:181-191, 2020

Caram LM, Ferrari R, Naves CR, et al: Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with COPD: mild-to-moderate COPD versus severe-to-very severe COPD. J Bras Pneumol 42:179-84, 2016

Sin DD, Man SF: Impact of cancers and cardiovascular diseases in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Curr Opin Pulm Med 14:115-21, 2008

Gaalema DE, Pericot-Valverde I, Bunn JY, et al: Tobacco use in cardiac patients: Perceptions, use, and changes after a recent myocardial infarction among US adults in the PATH study (2013-2015). Prev Med 117:76-82, 2018

Lee PN, Fry JS, Hamling JF, et al: Estimating the effect of differing assumptions on the population health impact of introducing a Reduced Risk Tobacco Product in the USA. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 88:192-213, 2017

National Institute for Health Research (NHS). University of York. PROSPERO: International prospective register of systematic reviews. Available em:

National Heart L, and Blood Institute: Study Quality Assessment Tools, Bethesda: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2021

Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, et al: Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS Med 6:e1000097, 2009

King C, Mulugeta A, Nabi F, et al: Mendelian randomization case-control PheWAS in UK Biobank shows evidence of causality for smoking intensity in 28 distinct clinical conditions. EClinicalMedicine 26:100488, 2020

Cifkova R, Bruthans J, Wohlfahrt P, et al: 30-year trends in major cardiovascular risk factors in the Czech population, Czech MONICA and Czech post-MONICA, 1985 - 2016/17. PLoS One 15:e0232845, 2020

Castillo-Riquelme M, Bardach A, Palacios A, et al: Health burden and economic costs of smoking in Chile: The potential impact of increasing cigarettes prices. PLoS One 15:e0237967, 2020

Pinto M, Bardach A, Palacios A, et al: Burden of smoking in Brazil and potential benefit of increasing taxes on cigarettes for the economy and for reducing morbidity and mortality. Cad Saude Publica 35:e00129118, 2019

Murgia F, Melotti R, Foco L, et al: Effects of smoking status, history and intensity on heart rate variability in the general population: The CHRIS study. PLoS One 14:e0215053, 2019

Knuchel-Takano A, Hunt D, Jaccard A, et al: Modelling the implications of reducing smoking prevalence: the benefits of increasing the UK tobacco duty escalator to public health and economic outcomes. Tob Control 27:e124-e129, 2018

Lubin JH, Couper D, Lutsey PL, et al: Synergistic and Non-synergistic Associations for Cigarette Smoking and Non-tobacco Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease Incidence in the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities (ARIC) Study. Nicotine Tob Res 19:826-835, 2017

Kang E: Assessing Health Impacts of Pictorial Health Warning Labels on Cigarette Packs in Korea Using DYNAMO-HIA. J Prev Med Public Health 50:251-261, 2017

Gambaryan M, Reeves A, Deev A, et al: Effects of tobacco control policy on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in Russia. Eur J Public Health 28:14-16, 2018

Pichon-Riviere A, Bardach A, Augustovski F, et al: [Financial impact of smoking on health systems in Latin America: A study of seven countries and extrapolation to the regional level]. Rev Panam Salud Publica 40:213-221, 2016

Pinto MT, Pichon-Riviere A, Bardach A: The burden of smoking-related diseases in Brazil: mortality, morbidity and costs. Cad Saude Publica 31:1283-97, 2015

Aune D, Schlesinger S, Norat T, et al: Tobacco smoking and the risk of heart failure: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Eur J Prev Cardiol 26:279-288, 2019



  • Não há apontamentos.

PERCURSO, e-ISSN: 2316-7521

Rua Chile, 1678, Rebouças, Curitiba/PR (Brasil). CEP 80.220-181

Licença Creative Commons

Este obra está licenciado com uma Licença Creative Commons Atribuição-NãoComercial 4.0 Internacional.